TEMPLE ( PURA )

Shrine in Bali called Pura ( Temple ), temple in Bali have a level of architecture rather complicated  in viewpoint of the sculpture and the roof in use, from time to time the model and the level of carving for the temple always adjust base on tastes of each person or group that wants to build a temple, temple that was built in the era before Majapahit kingdom entered the Bali island ,  temple more tend to be built on a river bank or rocksand and some are still in simple architecture, after the era of Majapahit came in the island,temple was built has ornate carvings more complicated and many built using wood, temple in Bali is considered sacred and holy because there is ceremonial event for blessing the temple by  the priest and also put 5 element under the base of temple.

A group of temples in Bali can be classified into some parts namely

Temple were built for house hold there are carved with simple ornament  and there are very good ornament, all depends on the economic level of the family, usually consisting pelingih Jro Gede Sidan Karang,pelingih Surya, pelingih Taksu, pelingih Rong Telu

Temple were built for the collection of one family
is called Pura dadya, Pura merajan, Pura Maksan

temple that was built for the village communities
such as Pura Puseh, Pura Desa, Pura Dalem, Pura Bedugul

Temple were built to the wider society, wellknown we called as Pura Dangkahyangan, Pura Panembahan, Pura kawitan.

Temple were built for all elements of society Bali island.
This temple is known as Pura Kahyangan jagat

Below are the following of popular temple for tourist attraction

PURA BATUAN 

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Batuan temple or Pura Puseh Batuan is a local Balinese hindu temple made by local resident of rural rock, the temple is designed very beautiful with full of Balinese ornaments and the roof temple building is made of black palm tree fibers, it strategically located beside the main road from Denpasar to Ubud. Batuan temple was founded in 944 isaka ( 1022 Ad / Masehi )

The temple has high spiritual vibration, Batuan temple also have a fairly long history, because in the Temple there are ancient relics are from the prehistoric period. Because it was found many statues in the temple, and based on the number of statues found in Batuan temple, then it can be classified into several types dwarapala statues, animal statues, statues embodiment, statues holding a chicken, phallus, objects such as kala, peripih etc.

Structuring temple is nice and the beautiful, ornaments is found in the temple building is beautiful to support the temple will be visited by tourists.then around the temple there are facilities allows travelers find a little snack and beverage stalls, toilets and adequate parking area.

PURA GUNUNG KAWI 

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Before we recite  interesting things about Gunung Kawi temple, it is worthwhile to write a bit about the history of Gunung Kawi temple. Gunung Kawi is one of the cultural heritage and tourist attraction in Bali. the temple building was built in the 11th Century The location is near a river in Pakerisan, in Tampak Siring region located in the northeast of the tourist attractions of Ubud.

In Gunung Kawi temple, there are temples carved into the rock at a height of 7 meters by 10 numbers  of temples. Formerly the function of this temple is a place to worship the king Udayana. The interpretation of the functions of this temple, based on an inscription found in this tourist spot. There are three groups of temples in the sights Gunung Kawi, first group of five temples. Called the temple five, because there are five temples carved into the cliffs to the east and the fifth temple facing west. Five temple dedicated to the king Udayana and Anak Wungsu  and their families. The second group is called four temple, located in the western part of the tourist attractions Gunung Kawi. The temple is dedicated to the  concubines of Anak Wungsu. Meanwhile, in the southwestern part of the temple  there is one  temple is called the tenth temple The temple  which is dedicated to the top ten for the prime minister who served in the administration anak Wungsu

PURA TIRTA EMPUL 

PURA TIRTA EMPUL

Pura Tirta Empul and holy spring  located in the area  village  of Manukaya, District Sukawati of  Gianyar regency . Tampaksiring  village located 36 km from Denpasar.

Pura Tirta Empul as relics of the kingdom in Bali, one of the few ancient relics to be witnessed and known in the village. Next to West Temple there is  height ground is the Presidential Palace built in the administration of President Soekarno.

Regarding the name of the temple is most likely taken from a spring contained within this temple named Tirta Empul as mentioned above. Etymologically that Tirta Empul means water that gushes out of the ground. So Tirta Empul means holy water that gushes out of the ground.

Tirta Empul water flowing into the river Pakerisan. Along the river, there are several archaeological heritage. Establishment of this temple was estimated in 960 A.D. in the era of King Chandra Bhayasingha Warmadewa Dynasty. As usual the temple – from temples, the temple is divided into three sections that are Jaba Pura (front page), Jaba Tengah (Central page) and jeroan (page in).

In the Middle of temple ( jaba tengah ) there are  2 (two) long rectangular pool and the pool has 30 pieces lined shower from East to West facing south. Each  shower  was traditionally has its own name such Pengelukatan , Pembersihan, Sudamala ( purification ) and Shower cetik (Toxic).

Shower cetik and Tirta Empul name has something to do with the mythology that battle King Mayadenawa Raja Batu Anyar (Bedahulu) with Bathara Indra ( Indra god ).

In mythology, it is told that King Mayadenawa being ill – treatment and did not allow the people to carry out the ceremony – a religious ceremony to beg salvation from God Almighty. After the act was known by the Gods, the gods headed by  Bhatara indra attack Mayadenawa . Mayadenawa ultimately be defeated and fled north side reached the village of Tampak Siring.

As a result of his power Mayadenawa create a spring cetik (poison), which resulted in many of the paramilitary troops of Bathara Indra who died from drinking the water. Seeing this Batara Indra immediately stuck his spear and emit water out of the ground (Tirta Empul) and Holy water is used splatter the troops then they become  live again as usual.

This area offers peacefully atmosphere and nice breathtaking due surrounding by lush trees, in special day or ceremony day some people doing purification in this temple, they bring offering and pray first before shower in holy spring water.

PURA GOA GAJAH ( Elephant cave temple )

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Pura Goa Gajah is one of the oldest temples and historic that became a symbol and witness the development of civilization Hindu and Buddhist communities in the island. Goa elephant if interpreted the meaning elephant. Why in the call Goa Gajah? because one of the temple there is a cave with a large carving at its entrance that resembles an elephant, then it is called a cave elephant cave.

Elephant cave temple still has the debate when built in detail, according to the records Majapahit kingdom in 1365 AD stated that Goa Gajah temple built by a kingdom in Bali named Bedahulu kingdom in the 11th century AD. or before the cultural influence of the Majapahit empire entrance to the island of Bali. In the note also mentions that the Pura Goa Gajah used for worship by the two religions, namely Hinduism and Buddhism at the same time or when it was called the Shiva-Buddhist religion and in the subsequent development when the popularity of Buddhism faded Goa Gajah temple remains in use as a place of worship of the Hindus. This temple complex also is a site where archaeologists at the temple courtyard there are many pieces of statues and temples that have not been finalized.

Inside the complex Pura Goa Gajah not only available big cave, but there are other buildings such as the fountain of some statues, the water itself is the source of water from the confluence of two springs where the Balinese Hindu community it is considered an a thing very sacred. There is also a statue of the god Ganesha as a protective deity in the Hindu religious beliefs. on the other corner there are the ruins of the temple patterned Buddha carved on sandstone rocks.
The ambiance of elephant cave temple complex itself is full of peace, bring your form of architecture typical of the past,in kingdoms era patterned Hinduism and Buddhism. You are also allowed to enter the main Goa in this temple, in which there are booths that were once believed to be used for meditation.

PURA LUHUR ULUWATU

PURA ULUWATU BALI

Pura Uluwatu is located in the village of Pecatu, Kuta District, Badung regency, Bali, approximately 30 km to the south of the city of Denpasar. Pura Pura Uluwatu also called Luwur ( great, above, almighty ) this is one of the Pura Sad Kahyangan ( six temple kahyangan ) regarded as a spiritual pillar Bali island.

There are two opinions about the history of the establishment of Uluwatu. there have suggested that this temple was founded by Mpu Kuturan in the 9th century, during the reign of King Marakata. Another opinion Uluwatu development associate with Dang Hyang Nirartha,He is Pedanda ( Priest ) from the Kingdom of Daha (Kediri) in East Java. DangHyang Nirartha came to Bali in 1546 AD, during the reign of Dalem Waturenggong. The Priest then set up temple in Bukit Uluwatu Pecatu. then a priest continued a spiritual journey around Bali island, finally DangHyang Nirartha back to Pura Uluwatu. In this temple the Priest ‘moksha’, leaving ‘marcapada’ (world) towards ‘Swargaloka’ (heaven). Ceremony or ‘piodalan’ anniversary falls on Anggara kasih, wuku Medangsia the Saka calendar. The ceremony usually lasts for 3 days in followed by thousands of Hindus.

Pura Uluwatu occupy land on a high cliff that juts into the ocean Indonesia with a height of about 70 m above sea level. Because of its location at the top of the cliff, to get to the location of the temple must walk up the stone stairs are quite high. The building of this temple faced east, in contrast to other temples in Bali are generally facing west or south. Along the road on the outer edge of the temple are hundreds of monkeys that roam. While it may seem tame, the monkeys often interfere the visitors to grab food or goods imposed.

PURA TANAH LOT

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In the legends that many people believe, a wanderer from Java which is as a priest or holy man is founder of Pura Tanah Lot. The wanderer named Dang Hyang Nirartha or also known as Dang Hyang Dwijendra, which when constructing the Pura sad kahyangan makes the population of Bali believe in Hinduism.

The incident occurred in the XV or XVI century, at which time Dang Hyang Nirartha was on a mission to spread Hinduism in Bali island. King Dalem Waturenggong ruling in Bali on that time welcomes the arrival of Dang Hyang Nirartha in spreading Hinduism. This makes the Hindu religion can spread to various areas as well as remote villages in Bali.

Dang Hyang Nirartha reportedly saw the holy light from the sea in the south of Bali. The light led him till finally arrive in the village Beraban in Tabanan regency.village Beraban rulers by someone who following of monotheistic religion his named Bendesa Beraban sakti.

At that time, Bendesa Beraban who ruler of the Tanah Lot jealous because his followers to follow Dang Hyang Nirartha and began to leave Bendesa Beraban. Because of this, Bendesa Beraben wants Dang Hyang Nirartha should not be in Tanah Lot again.

The request followed by Dang Hyang Nirartha but before that, he moved boulders into the middle of the beach with its power. The boulder is a stone with a shape like a parrot that was previously used Dang Hyang Nirartha as a place of meditation. Once moved, Dang Hyang Nirartha build a temple on top of the boulder that is currently the Pura Tanah Lot temple as we know it. Tanah Lot means rock in the middle of the sea.

Scarves that he used was changed into a snake, the has duties to maintain the temple. Until now, the snake can be seen in the Pura Tanah Lot with characteristic black color with yellow stripes and has a flat shape like a fish tail. Not only that, the snake venom possessed more powerful than cobra venom, even said to be up to 3 times more powerful. In the legend said that Bendesa Beraban eventually also become a follower of Dang Hyang Nirartha.

In the history of Tanah Lot, Dang Hyang Nirartha left the village earlier Beraban to give keris sakti Jaramenara to Bendesa Beraban. It is said that the keris has the ability to eliminate various kinds of diseases that can damage the plant.

Keris currently is kept in Puri Kediri that always made religious ceremony once every 6 months in the Pura Tanah Lot. Villagers Beraban increasingly prosperous, abundant harvests continue and still respect each other since the religious ceremony diligently carried out every 6 month.

PURA ULUN DANU BERATAN

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Ulun Danu Beratan temple located at the Lake Beratan in the tourist object of Baturiti district,Tabanan regency.approximately 56 km from Denpasar city by passing highway Denpasar – Singaraja.

Ulun Danu Bratan history can be known based on archaeological data and historical data contained in lontar babad Mengwi ( papyrus chronicle mengwi ). Based on archaeological data are located on the front page of Ulun Danu temple there are relics of historic objects like a stone sarcophagus and stone boards were thought to have existed since the megalithic age, about 500 years before Masehi ( AD )

Both artifacts untill present is placed in the courtyard terrace (babaturan) Ulun Danu. Location can be estimated at Ulun Danu Beratan temple has been used as a place to hold a ritual since the era of megalithic tradition.

Based on the Babad Mengwi, I Gusti Agung Putu as the founder of the kingdom of Mengwi had established a temple at the far end of the lake Beratan before he founded Taman Ayun temple,not described in the papyrus chronicle of Mengwi when his right he founded Ulun Danu Beratan, but described the establishment Taman Ayun temple and the ceremony on the day Anggara kliwon Medangsia, Caka year 1556 (1634 AD).

Based on the description of the Mengwi papyrus chronicle was known Ulun Danu Bratan established before Saka year 1556 by I Gusti Agung Putu. Since the establishment of the temple, the royal Mengwi be peaceful and prosperous, and the community was dubbed him “I Gusti Agung Sakti”.

PURA TAMAN AYUN

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Pura Taman Ayun is located in the village of Mengwi, Badung regency, about 18 km to the west of Denpasar. This temple is beautiful, in accordance with its name, which means temple in a beautiful garden, Pura Taman Ayun is also considered to have historical value, so that in 2002 the local government of Bali to propose to UNESCO that the temple was included in the World Heritage List.

Pura Taman Ayun is Pura ibu (Paibon) for Mengwi kingdom. This temple was built by King Mengwi his name I Gusti Agung Putu, in 1556 Saka (1634 AD). At first, I Gusti Agung Putu build a temple in the northern village of Mengwi, place to worship their ancestors. The temple called Taman Genter. When Mengwi has developed into a great empire, I Gusti Agung Putu move genter park to east ward and expand the building. Pura has expanded the inaugurated as Pura Taman Ayun on Tuesday kliwon-Medangsia fourth month of 1556 Saka. Until now, every Tuesday kliwon wuku Medangsia according dating Saka, in this temple held piodalan (ceremony) to celebrate the anniversary of the founding temple

Pura Taman Ayun has undergone several improvements. Repair massively implemented in 1937. In 1949 implemented revisions to the kori agung, Gapura bentar and built quite big Wantilan. The third improvement in 1972 and the last in 1976.Taman Ayun temple complex occupies an area of 100 x 250 m2, composed of the outer courtyard and three inner court, which increasingly into higher location. Outer court called Jaba, located on the outer side of the pond. From the outer court, there is a bridge across the pond, leading to a gate of Gapura bentar.

PURA BESAKIH

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Besakih temple is the largest temple in Bali which is precisely located in the District of Rendang, Karangasem regency. In the past, the place before Pura Besakih is built only found a woody wilderness of forest. Prior to the Bali Strait (Segara Rupek) island of Bali and Java time are still together and have not been separated by the sea, the island is named Long Island or Pulau Dawa. Somewhere in East Java, Mount Rawang (Mt Raung) there is a Yogi or a hermit named Rishi Markandeya. Because the height of spiritual science, spiritual chastity, as well as the skill and wisdom of his, then by the people he was given the nickname of Bathara ( Lord ) Giri Rawang.

in the beginning Rishi Markandeya meditated in Mount Demulung, then moved to the mountain Hyang supposedly it was Mount Diyeng, mountain in Central Java which came from words Di Hyang. So long he was imprisoned there, got a decree from Hyang Widhi Wasa in order that he and his followers should opened forest on the Dawa after opened forest completed then the land was distributed to his followers.

then he departed to Bali with his first numbering 8,000 people with the necessary equipment and tools. Arriving in place of the destination, he ordered his followers to begin to crush the forest. However When they crush the forest, many attendants The Yogi Markandeya who are sick and dying, and there are also dying eaten by wild beasts, because it was not preceded by a ceremony yadnya (bebanten / offerings).

Then he ordered his followers to stop crush the forest. he felt unhappy, he then invited his followers to return to Java. He was back in place of hermitage to seek guidance from Hyang Widhi.in several time he was in his hermitage, raised his goal return for further crush the forest. On a good day, he again went into Bali. This time he took his second follower totals 4000 people that came from Aga village that is lives at slopes of Mount Rawung. Participated also some of Pandita or the rishi. The followers bring equipment along with agricultural tools and seeds of plants to be planted in the new place.

Upon arriving at the destination, Rishi Markandeya promptly did hard meditation together with others rishi and offered upakara yadnya namely Dewa Yadnya and Butha Yadnya. After the ceremony was finished, his followers were asked to continue crush the forest, cutting down trees and others, started from south to north. Because it seen there were enough cutting the forests, blessed by Hyang Widhi Wasa, rishi Markandeya ask his followers stopped and he began to share of land for the followers then become rice fields, trees garden and housing.

Thus the followers of the Rishi Markandya derived from Aga village (population slopes of Mount Rawung East Java) settled in the place until now. Place former commencement crushed or cutting woods by the Rishi Markandya plant jug (caratan) containing water, with 5 kinds of metal, namely: gold, silver, copper, bronze and iron, called Panca Datu and gems Mirah adi (ruby major) with complete ceremony ( upakara ) and also sprinkled Pangentas Tirta (holy water).

the place was palnted a fifth type of metal it was named Basuki which means safety ( selamat ). Why its called Basuki because second arrival Rsi Markandya along with 4000 followers survived no obstacle or a disaster like that experienced at the time of his first arrival. It was later established palinggih ( shrine ). Gradually in that place were built a temple named Pura Basukian. this temple is pioneer of others establishment temple in the temple complex Besakih. Others have suggested that the construction of the temple on the ground began Isaka 85 or 163 years AD. Construction of the temple complex in Pura Besakih with its gradual and sustained effort of restoration and repairs were carried out continuously time to time.

PURA BATUKARU

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Pura Luhur Batukaru is the temple as a place to worship God Mahadeva. Because its function is who cultivate and grow plants to use water properly, as local genious name God Mahadewa is called the Lord Hyang Tumuwuh – designation of God as the grow.

God as the source who brings water meet the soil sothat appear the power to grow plants. The plants that will thrive with green leaves containing chlorophyll as a life-saving substance. Worshiping God in Pura Luhur Batukaru should be used to build the spiritual power and spirit of life for seriously maintain soil fertility and water resources.

Pura Luhur Batukaru is also included Pura sad kahyangan jagat is mentioned in Lontar Kusuma Dewa ( holy papyrus book ). Pura Luhur Batukaru already existed in the 11th century AD. Contemporaneous with Pura Besakih, Pura Luhur Lempuyang, Pura Goa Lawah, Pura Luhur Uluwatu and Pura Pusering Jagat. As the initiator of the founding of Pura Sad kahyangan is Mpu Kuturan .Many experts view that the Mpu Kuturan establish Pura Sad Kahyangan jagat to motivate people to maintain a balance of existence of Sad Kerti namely Atma kerti,Samudra Kerti, Wana Kerti, Danu Kerti, Jagat kerti and Jana Kerti.

Pura Luhur Batukaru possibility previously been used as a place of worship and a place for meditation as media atma Kerti by spiritual figures in the Tabanan area and Bali in general. That view is based on the discovery of water sources and with different types of statues shower. From their sources of these springs can be concluded that the area was once used as a place to be imprisoned for life keep Wanaprastin to strengthen the sad Kerti.
After the founding of Pura Luhur Batukaru in the 11th century that we do not get information clearly how the existence of the temple. in 1605 AD there is description of the book Babad Buleleng. In the book explained that Pura Luhur Batukaru in the aforementioned marred ( broke ) by King Buleleng named Ki Gusti Ngurah Panji Sakti.

In the book chronicle is told that the kingdom of Buleleng already very safe no more enemies that dare to attack him. The king wanted to expand the kingdom then held an extension to Tabanan. Raja Ki Gusti Ngurah Panji Sakti on his way to meet with the area which is an area Batukaru Tabanan kingdom. Ki Gusti Ngurah Panji Sakti together soldiers damaging Pura Luhur Batukaru.

without the suspect by Ki Panji Sakti suddenly came a lot of fierce wasp sting out of nowhere. Ki Panji Sakti and his soldiers were attacked severely by wasps are fierce and venomous. Ki Panji Sakti scuttled and backed off and canceled a plan to attack the kingdom of Tabanan. Because the temple is destroyed by Ki Panji Sakti totally made damage the building shrines. Staying in the form of a pile of debris.

in 1959 Pura Luhur Batukaru got improvement then In 1977 gradually there is renovation by goverment aid. Until now Pura Luhur Batukaru is getting better off.

to be continued next temple